Book of Abstracts
Local Voices and Local Sounds: Community Radio and Multicultural Communities
Moderators/Participants: Wendy Bergfeldt, Brian Fauteux, and Jon Kertzer Potential community participants: Dawn (Wells) Lanis: General Manager, Memebrtou Community Radio Angus LeFort: CKJM, Coopérative Radio Chéticamp Ltée. Bill MacNeil: General Manager: Coastal Community Radio Co-operative; Program Director: The Coast 89.7
Abstract: This organized discussion aims to bridge academic work on community engagement and local media with the everyday practices of local, community media-making. More specifically, this discussion will consider the significant role of community radio in providing a voice and a platform for the music and culture of local multicultural communities. We will raise questions about the role of listening practices and rituals in constituting communities, the connections between radio hosts and local community members, the importance of resources and technical training at community radio stations, and the ways in which internal and external policies shape the operations and culture of community stations. Ultimately, this panel will consider the importance of local, non-commercial radio in an age of digital media and industry convergence.
Applied Ethnomusicology: Current Developments
Speakers: Klisala Harrison (chair), Erica Haskell, Anne Rasmussen, Anthony Seeger, Sally Treloyn
This roundtable brings together the President of SEM (Anne Rasmussen), a co-chair of the SEM Applied Ethnomusicology Section (Erica Haskell), the chair of the ICTM Study Group on Applied Ethnomusicology (Klisala Harrison), and applied scholars associated with both the SEM and ICTM networks on applied ethnomusicology (Anthony Seeger, Sally Treloyn). It discusses current developments in the field of applied ethnomusicology from perspectives of the speakers based in North America, Australia and Europe. Questions addressed include: What are key trends in applied method and theory today, and what are considered central issues in various national and international contexts? How does the field of applied ethnomusicology relate with old and new trends in ethnomusicology that have been called engaged, transforming/transformative and public? Which useful ideas, sometimes from different scholarly fields, can be used to further enhance applied ethnomusicology?
Roundtable: Intangible Cultural Heritage, Sustainable Development and Tourism
Speakers: Richard MacKinnon, Boyu Zhang, Marcia Ostashewski, Naila Ceribasic
There are now 168 countries from around the world who have signed the UNESCO 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. While Canada is not currently a signatory, there are groups and organizations throughout the country who are interested in advocating for Canada to support this convention including the Canadian Network of Intangible Cultural Heritage, the Folklore Studies Association of Canada (FSAC), the Canadian Society for Traditional Music (CSTM), the Canada Research Chair on Ethnological Heritage at Laval University and the Centre for Cape Breton Studies, Cape Breton University. Some Canadian provinces and cities are currently implementing ICH into their heritage policies (Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador, Saskatchewan, Quebec City, Montreal). Grassroots organizations are also interested in ICH throughout the country. For example, recent annual meetings of the Canadian Museums Association, the Folklore Studies Association of Canada and Canadian Society for Traditional Music all focused on the topic of Intangible Cultural Heritage.
“Tangible yet Intangible: Community Based Cross Cultural Aesthetics at a Local Jazz Festival“
Buren, Van Tom
This paper will present the experience of Latin American artists presented in the White Plains Jazz Festival from 2013 to present that has informed the creation of a performance environment to simultaneously celebrate the roots and ongoing traditions of American Jazz, while highlighting its capacity to serve as a medium for cross cultural dialog. My experience draws from twenty years of public sector ethnomusicology researching and presenting diverse cultural expression in the New York metropolitan area, with a focus on collaborative project development and ethnographic documentation of artists within their cultural community contexts.
The program of intangible cultural heritage, and the evolvement of “administrative” ethnomusicology
This paper intends to stir up the discussion on the role of ethnomusicologists in the program of intangible cultural heritage, taking it as an outstanding case of so-called “administrative” ethnomusicology, which has been just in passing located by Svanibor Pettan within the context of “planned change by those who are external to the local cultural group” (2008). Thus, this branch of applied ethnomusicology has remained highly unacknowledged in the literature, not to mention its elaboration and theorization, although it, as I will try to demonstrate, actually takes a large part of what an increasing number of ethnomusicologists do.
The Neighbours Project: Diversity in Times of Dramatic Demographic Change
This paper emerges from work on cultural diversity in Newfoundland where ethnocultural diversification increased dramatically after 2007 when the provincial government opted to increase immigration by 300% per year. While not as sudden, nor as trauma ridden as the current refugee crisis in Europe, the rapidly changing face/voice of St. John’s offers a case study of applied ethnomusicology as a microcosm of radical demographic change. Relevant community leaders, public institutions and academics came together to advocate varied exhibitions under the rubric of “The Neighbours,” each emphasizing the “re-storying of place,” multi-generational perspectives, and a balance of celebratory and critical narratives.
Making Haiti’s Drums of Vodou: Current Pressures and Future Possibilities
Many Haitians assert that the art of making traditional drums is in decline. Craftsmen are confronting dramatic environmental, economic, and socio-political changes to their craft. This marks a critical juncture in the positioning of the drum in society, long located as central to Haitian experience. In documenting the process of instrument making, I have initiated collaborative projects to support this important expression of Haiti’s cultural heritage. With thoughtful intervention through the applied research process as a guiding objective, I reflect on what we can do together to ensure that the rhythm of the drum beats on.
Mimicry or Subversion?: “Cultural Tourism” and the Production of the Other
This paper highlights a paradox connected with “cultural tourism:” that experiences intended to foster intercultural understanding are equally complicit in the production of essentialist notions of culture and the Other. Lila Abu-Lughod has written that, “Culture is the essential tool for making other” (1991:470). I go further, arguing that performing artists participate in this “Othering” by playing into Western stereotypes about non-Western music. However, what appears to be mimicry may be subversion, as performing artists knowingly produce stereotypes in order to solicit partnership and support, which they can then use for their own projects.
THE PARAMETERS OF CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY RELATED TO INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE: A MODEL SUGGESTION
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in exploring culture and sustainability, including music and dance. However, any work that aims to provide useful data must overcome its intangible nature. The cultural sustainability model presented in this paper is based on data obtained from fieldwork, an evaluation of past and recent works on cultural policy and applied ethnomusicology, and the outcomes of several conducted projects. The model’s aim is to sustain traditional dances and music culture in Domaniç, Turkey, and it is hoped that it will advance and further studies in the field of applied ethnomusicology and cultural sustainability, and prove to be an inspiration for future research.
When International Political Upheavals Drive Cross-Cultural Music Education: An Applied Perspective
Starting with the premise that education is a key component of applied ethnomusicology, this paper explores the collective and individual impacts of international and domestic political events and attitudes on extra-academic music learning and practice of individual musicians and musical projects in the United States, through looking at the study, proliferation and performance of Arabic music there. It examines why & how musician-educators and the participants of these educational situations respond to outside forces and events, cooperate and ultimately collaborate in helping to make individual and collective sense of the meaning of the music experience.
Ethnographic Research and Cross-Community Choirs in Belfast, Northern Ireland
This paper considers how ethnographic research can contribute towards understanding the complex interactions within post-conflict communities, so as to better facilitate collaboration between groups attempting cross-community engagement. Through participant observation and interviews, data has been gathered examining how two cross-community choirs in Belfast, Northern Ireland, create an atmosphere of inclusivity and belonging. Findings suggest that successful cross-community engagement requires regular opportunities for choir members to review and discuss the groups’ progress and vision. This provides them with a sense of belonging within the choral group.
“Muisca indigenous sounds: a collaborative musical ethnography”
I analyze the methodology for a collaborative ethnography on the music of the Muisca indigenous community in Colombia. I examine the processes of negotiating research permissions, finding common interests and collaborative outcomes that would satisfy our shared interests, planning and executing research activities, and providing a balance of the results of this methodology up to now. This collaborative ethnography is based on the joint work with the collective “Muisca Warriors”, a group of Muisca young musicians who want to strengthen bonds of solidarity with the youths of the other four Muisca cabildos of the Bogota Plateauthrough the ethnography of their musical practices.
Promoting Human Rights through Music in Urban Poverty: Complexities and Contradictions
In poverty contexts world-over, cultural workers use music in order to facilitate human rights, including cultural rights. Often these acts of “ musical labour” implement policies and artistic or musical approaches explicitly referring to cultural or human rights, and via (I)NGOs, governments and private businesses. However, despite cultural and critical literatures on rights, plus growing focuses in policy and law on rights promotion, little thinking has been done on the complexities and contradictions of facilitating rights via cultural—including musical—practices. This paper discusses problematics of engaging rights through “ world” popular song in “ Canada’s poorest postal code,” Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside.
“The Bodhrán in the Boogie Down Bronx: Ethnomusicological Pedagogy in Mott Haven.”
This paper examines the bodhrán in relation to ethnomusicological pedagogy employed in a public middle school percussion ensemble for at-risk youth in the high poverty neighborhood of Mott Haven in the South Bronx. Often associated with Irish traditional music, the bodhrán was the central instrument provided to students with which to perform a variety of non-traditional musics. Cleaved from its traditional context, the bodhrán’s inclusion in the public school percussion ensemble led to the creation of a new instrumental repertoire that sought to address student educational needs, communal interests and pedagogy focused upon healthy musical forms of student self-expression.
Funding Festivals: Bringing the World to the Bosnian Capital
This paper is devoted to the “festivalization” of the capital city of Sarajevo after the signing of the Dayton Agreement and the donor environment that supported foreign rather than local performances. I noted a shift in the post-war period staged multi-day multi-performance events toward foreign programming. I highlight the tendency of donors to de-emphasize local difference as a way of creating politically safe aiding strategies. I emphasize why the “festival model” was attractive to local and foreign cultural organizers during this period. Specifically I discuss the reorganization of the Sarajevska Zima Festival as well as other festivals that existed before the war and continued to produce such events after the war.
Study Abroad and/as Niche Tourism: The Case of Romani Music
Niche tourism is quickly growing as the next trapping among non-Roma to engage with Roma. Socio-economic processes associated with tourism are turning impoverished Romani settlements into a preserved product, one readied for consumption by the Westerner that allows foreigners to experience things the way they “really are.”As a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, I have worked to organize an undergraduate Romani music-oriented study-abroad program to the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia (2012) and to the Czech Republic and Hungary (2014, 2016) with ethnomusicologist Zuzana Jurkova at Charles University. The legal, administrative, economic and social issues surrounding this study-abroad program for the professors, students, and Roma musicians involved serve as the foundation of this study.
Tangible Cultural Heritage: Imagining Musical Participation through Museum Displays
Over two dozen musical instrument museums thrive in Europe and the United States, drawing in thousands of visitors a year with wide ranging expectations about what they want to see and experience. This presentation offers a critical survey of musical instruments as heritage objects and ethnomusicological artifacts. Posing the question, what do instruments mean in the museum? I explore the dynamics of display in two different museum settings: the Museum of Musical Instruments (the MIM) in Phoenix and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
“Songs for the Ghosts, Saints for the Undocumented: Post-Revolutionary Mexican Cristero Corridos in United States Immigration and Border Politics”
Mexican immigrants’ increasing feelings of sociopolitical marginalization in the U.S. have led to new trends of religious attitudes inspired by La Cristiada, the 1926 armed rebellion of Cristeros against the Mexican government. Cristeros (an identity adopted by post-Revolutionary Catholic communities) encoded their resistance in corrido (ballad) compositions depicting governmental oppression and Cristero martyrdom. Contemporary uses of Cristero corridos equate experiences of injustice in the U.S. with the Mexican Cristero resistance. Contemporary performances recontextualize Cristero corridos as commentaries on immigrant experiences and identity, and collapse physical, sacred, and political boundaries in what is seen as a new suppression of Mexican identity.
Dilemmas and possibilities of participatory action research in a post graduate course in Rio de Janeiro
Mendonca, Pedro (Co-Authors Jhenifer Raul, Lucas Assis and Mattheus Ferreira)
This paper aims to present the partial results of participatory action research on the autonomist funk scene (anti-institutional) in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Held with the participation of 4 more “native” researchers – performers or event organizers – to be paid in the year 2016 with the support of my PhD scholarship, the idea is to hold a debate in dialogue with the work of Musicultura group and recent research in ethnomusicology which are to be engaged, pointing new collaborative perspectives and their academic, political and epistemological dilemmas in a post-graduate research in ethnomusicology.
A Tale of Two Pansori: Conflict of Form and Function in Cultural Preservation
As Pansori, Korean narrative song of lower class origin, became popular amongst all levels of society through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, performers altered stories and performance style to suit the audience. The folk style was more emotionally expressive, linguistically direct, and had a raspier sound; the aristocratic style was more emotionally reserved, used refined language, and had a clearer tone. With subsequent decline and preservation, the variations in movement and gesturing seem to relate to their historic practices. Through ethnographic and movement analysis, I demonstrate how movement and gesture are culturally encoded with varying class and gender identities.
“Applied Ethnomusicology in Redefining the African Diaspora in Philadelphia”
Muller, Carol and Nina Ohman
There is a growing backlash in theUS to the failure to differentiate those classified as “African American” as EITHER recently arrived African immigrants AND/OR as African Americans forced into slavery and sent to the Americas. We address these tensions through two Academically Based Community Service music projects at Penn. We ask how do we use community engagement practices as applied ethnomusicologists to work against these negative stereotyping practices and anti-‐Muslim attitudes, how might we use the sounds of Islam, and other popular music for intercultural listening and dialog, and social media to produce greater understanding locally and global
Impacts of Neoliberalism in Higher Education: A Case Study in Indigenous Music Education from South Australia
In the early 1970s eminent University of Adelaide ethnomusicologist Catherine Ellis collaborated with leading members of the South Australian Aboriginal community to establish the Centre for Aboriginal Studies in Music (CASM), an innovative intercultural music education program that has produced long term outcomes of benefit for Indigenous Australian musicians and music. Now under threat from the impacts of neoliberalism, corporatisation and market-driven economics, this paper provides a case study of challenges in maintaining culturally responsive educational services in the context of conflicting values within an institutional setting that increasingly prioritises business modelling over Indigenous priorities and decision making.
Storytelling through Song, Ethnomusicology through Public Engagement
Jeliw and griots, kobzars, troubadours, ashiks, gusle players, sean-nós and seann-nòssingers, bards and epic singers – men and women of narrative traditions around the world play a variety of roles in their communities and cultures. The SINGING STORYTELLERS multifaceted public outreach project combines social sciences and humanities research to achieve a variety of intellectual, cultural, social and economic aims. It accomplishes this by attending to the lives, music and verbal artistry of bards around the world. The project’s three main aims are: to co-create knowledge through the research and research-creation of a diverse and multidisciplinary group of international scholars and stakeholders; to involve students and emerging scholars, providing them with mentorship and opportunities for learning, training and its application in developing their own research practices; and to share the knowledge created through our collaborative work with wide audiences, ensuring its utility and value.
Self Censorship and the Intangible: (Why There Is No) Critical Re-Evaluation of Cultural Heritage Programs inHua’er
Since 2009, hua’er is part of UNESCO’s ICH program, and ever since its designation has been elevated from “backward music” toward “folk art”; the performers are not mere “singers” anymore, they became “folk artists” (cf. Rees 2012). Unfortunately, this recognition appears to be in name only. Among Chinese academics, critical re-evaluation of ICH measures seems to be absent. This collective silence is based on ideological reasons: Scholars are running risks of ruining their careers if they openly criticise state sponsored ICH policies (cf. Yang 1994). But are there critical voices? Taking hua’er as a case study, I aim to give voices to scholars and singers interviewed during fieldwork.
Collaboration and Cultural Memory: The Case for “Slow” Proactive Archiving on Quebec’s Gaspé Coast.
In this paper, I make the case for a slow, collaborative proactive archival methodology (Edmonson 2004; Landau 2012) to build a digital community sound archive. Using my ethnographic fieldwork with the anglophone minority in Gaspé, Quebec with insights from memory theorists, I consider how the material and temporal layers of original analog home recordings and their digital counterparts interact with our archival protocol to simultaneously produce and undermine cultural memory. I follow sociologist Paul Connerton to explore how “slowness” and collaboration while building a (digital) place can work to make it more memorable for those who spend time there (2009).
“ORTODECIMANTE. 40 orthographic Rules in décimas cantadas.”
Perez, Sonia Cassola
Décima is a rural poetry form used in the Musica Campesina of Cuba. This project was developed as a vehicle for teaching the orthographic rules in décima form to young children. Cuban researchers Mr Guillermo Isidoro Castillo Ramirez wrote the book and Sonia Perez Cassola have developed a CD-DVD for children The text is accompanied by a CD which features young children from various regions of Cuba singing and reciting in décima accompanied by leading campesina musician Babarito Torres. This project gives young Cubans an insight into the practice of this important Cuban rural musical form as well as helping to preserve the tradition.
“Reclaiming and Reimagining Tex-Mex Border Music through Legacy, Heritage and Place”
This paper examines efforts of activists, cultural brokers and city planners in the Texas-Mexican border town of San Benito amid opposing narratives of musical heritage and cultural memory. A proposed “museum cluster” would entail re-locating a cultural arts center and music museum. Both were independently created in the name of the city’s two “native sons”: Narciso Martínez, the “father of conjunto music” who died poor and nearly forgotten; and Freddy Fender, a Grammy-winning country-rock musician who left home. The proposed cluster is part of a plan to take the city from decline to renewal, a goal not shared by all.
The Taking Our Show on the (Silk) Road: The W&M MEME tours Morocco and Oman!
More than just the key to musical analysis, I have long considered the practice and performance of Arab music to be a methodology for both my fieldwork and teaching. The Middle Eastern Music Ensemble that I founded in 1994 has been a context for exploration, exchange, and experience among students, faculty, and invited guest artists, that, when shared through public performance, evinces a kind of unapologetic advocacy central to my work. This paper describes the community-based collaboration and activism that unfolded during my ensemble’s two international tours, both of them in 2014, one to Oman, and the other to Morocco.
The Islamic Worlds Festival at Virginia Tech: Engaging Diverse Communities
Thomas, Anne Elise
The Islamic Worlds Festival, produced by the Center for the Arts at Virginia Tech in April 2015, was conceived and curated in collaboration with multiple stakeholders from campus and the community. I propose that festivals aiming to bridge cultural difference achieve greatest success through efforts that allow for sustained and active participation of a diverse group in both planning and presentation. At a time in which any act of “representing” Islamic cultures has become political and often controversial, it is imperative for those in the field of cultural production to create opportunities for sustained civil dialogue and artistic exchange.
“If you seek this knowledge, a new world will open up for you”: informing higher education and rural development through new Mapuche musical expressions
This paper presents ethnomusicological projects that dialogue with Mapuche musicians about challenges related to rural-urban migration, such as the lagging rural economy in the highly indigenous Araucanía region, and low indigenous enrollment in universities. Urbanization is a fact of indigenous life, and groundbreaking initiatives such as Mapuche language revitalization have flourished against a remarkable backdrop of cultural hybridities resulting from rural-urban migration. I discuss: 1) academic projects based on dialogues with Mapuche musicians; and 2) the conversion of a traditional mingako ritual into a cultural festival, taking advantage of the cultural capital assigned to indigenous identity under Chilean neoliberal multiculturalism.
Applied Musicology and Peacebuilding in North Africa
This paper builds upon previous research that investigated the role of music and the arts in the social changes in North Africa that occurred between 2011 and 2012 and continue to this day by making connections between the nascent field of music and peacebuilding with the ongoing work of applied ethnomusicology. The paper explores the effect musical praxis has had upon the power relation dynamics between various social groups in Egypt, Tunisia and Libya, including the tensions between the state, civil society and rebel factions.
Studio-Live: developing a sustainable music industry in desert refugee camps and infrastructures for the preservation of Saharawi intangible heritage.
Ruano, Violeta and Sara McGuinness
February 2016 marks the 40th anniversary of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, a self-proclaimed nation based in refugee camps in SW Algeria. For the past 4 decades, more than 200,000 Saharawis have been stranded in the desert, embedded in a protracted conflict and dependent on international aid to survive. This paper considers the methodological and ethical issues behind Studio-Live, a music project that, in collaboration with the Saharawi Ministry of Culture, provides training and materials to build a local Saharawi music industry, seeking to enable young Saharawi refugees to develop useful skills, expose the world to their music and document their oral traditions
Musicians as partners in research – a joint analysis of three cases of musical work in ethnography
This paper addresses musical labour and methodologies that emphasize dialogical exchange with professional musicians, and their participation in discussions and actions with researchers during – and originating in – fieldwork. Three graduate students have shared the methodological procedure of organizing meetings and network communication with their peers in different pathways of musical work. The analyses have disclosed a sense of relative empowerment with the opportunities to discuss and take collective initiatives. Agents in the field may take part in the actual shaping of ethnographic research and, backed by the experience of argumentation, organize musical actions in continuation with these processes of interlocution.
Sound futures: Sustainability, ecosystems, and communities
Working within the context of raised awareness of music as intangible cultural heritage since the beginning of this century, this presentation summarises some of the key findings from the five-year international research collaboration Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures: Toward an ecology of cultural diversity (2009-2014), and sketches plans for next steps of working closely with communities to develop, implement and evaluate practical initiatives across five domains: systems of learning music, music and communities, contexts and constructs, infrastructure and regulations, and media and the music industry.
The Documentary Deception: Community Training in the Use of New Media and the Loss of Audiovisual Materials
Applied ethnomusicologists have often been party to a cruel deception in our efforts to encourage community documentation using audiovisual recorders. While considerable funds for documentation have been provided to applied ethnomusicologists and local community organizations over the past three decades, relatively few of the recordings are still usable today. This is largely due to damage to the original carriers and loss of materials due to inadequate training and funding for secure long-term storage. This paper presents examples from Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Sudan and considers whether this deception continues with the emergence of new media and the Internet.
Digital repatriation and Web 2.0 databases: implications for music vitality in the 21st century
This paper addresses developments in new technologies of music dissemination and their impact on music sustainability and vitality, responding to a developing global discourse on the ethics and effectiveness of repatriation. Drawing on data from two Web 2.0 database initiatives hosted by Indigenous organisations and communities in Western Australia and supported by research funding from the Australian Research Council, the paper will consider factors that support music vitality in database and digital repatriation environments in the 21stcentury.
From Cultural to Natural Resource: Indigenous Music, Community Radio, and Ecological Activism in the Peruvian Andes
Activities aimed at cultural sustainability have long been part and parcel of university life throughout Latin America. I describe how a Peruvian organization called the Centro de Capacitación Campesino (Center for Peasant Training) proved instrumental in the musical life of rural-indigenous communities around the Andean city of Ayacucho. First, I show how it fostered an indigenous music scene for performers eager to attain local renown, and created an informal cassette archive. Then, I show how a community radio station has recently drawn upon that archive to make old recordings of chimaycha music into a local symbol of indigenous ecological rationality.
A Repository for Justice: Advocating Franco American Music through Digital Archives
After decades of systematic discrimination and forced assimilation, Franco Americans in Maine have begun to once again embrace their heritage. In the hopes of promoting and better understanding this cultural revival, my students make ethnographic films featuring practitioners of Franco music and upload their work to a digital repository that allows the viewer to share the films through social media. Examining the films, digital archive, and Franco history, this paper demonstrates how accessibility (in documentation and in form) enables agency among community members and presents a case study for the importance of public scholarship within the field of ethnomusicology
The Relationship between Intangible cultural heritage and contemporary society
Intangible heritages are the historical creations. Many of them are not appreciated by contemporary societies. Using of the traditional elements to make a new creation is the way generally operated. This author thinks that the creations in contemporary time will not be traditions in the future due to the modern social context. The value of the heritages lies not in appreciation, but rather in how they are used to show cultural identities and historical reflections in some things cannot be created again in the future.